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Acclimatization refers to the process by which an organism adjusts to changes in its environment. It is a complex physiological process involving modifications at the cellular, metabolic, and behavioral levels [1]. Humans, animals, and plants undergo acclimatization when subjected to changes in climate, altitude, temperature, or other environmental factors.

Acclimatization refers to the process by which an organism adjusts to changes in its environment. It is a complex physiological process involving modifications at the cellular, metabolic, and behavioral levels. Humans, animals, and plants undergo acclimatization when subjected to changes in climate, altitude, temperature, or other environmental factors.

How Acclimatization Works

The process of acclimatization can be broadly divided into three stages: Initial response, acclimatization, and deacclimatization [2].

  1. Initial response: The body immediately reacts to a new environment, displaying stress responses. For instance, a person climbing a high-altitude mountain experiences difficulty breathing due to the thin air.
  2. Acclimatization: Over time, the body makes physiological changes to adapt to the new environment. Continuing with the mountain climber example, the body increases red blood cell production to enhance oxygen transport, facilitating easier breathing.
  3. Deacclimatization: If the organism returns to its original environment, the body gradually reverses the changes made during the acclimatization phase. This phase can be just as crucial and potentially hazardous as the initial adjustment [3].

Importance of Acclimatization

Acclimatization plays a crucial role in various domains:

  • Mountain climbing: Acclimatization is a lifesaver for climbers and high-altitude hikers. It minimizes the risks of altitude sickness, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) [4].
  • Sports and athletics: Athletes often train in conditions similar to those they will encounter during their events. This approach, called “heat acclimatization”, helps improve their performance and resilience [5].
  • Health and medicine: Understanding acclimatization can help develop strategies to deal with health issues related to changes in environment, such as heat strokes, hypothermia, and altitude sickness.

Acclimatization Examples

Human Acclimatization

EnvironmentAcclimatization Process
High altitudeIncreased red blood cell production, deeper breathing
Cold climateImproved thermoregulation, increased metabolic rate
Hot climateIncreased sweat production, changes in blood flow

Plant Acclimatization

EnvironmentAcclimatization Process
DroughtDeeper roots, thicker leaves
High light intensityIncreased chlorophyll production
Cold temperaturesChange in cellular structure, increased antifreeze proteins [6]

Challenges in Acclimatization

While acclimatization generally benefits the organism, there can be potential drawbacks:

  • It takes time for the body to adjust, and rapid changes in environment can lead to severe stress or health risks.
  • The body’s capacity to acclimate varies among individuals, potentially disadvantaging some in certain environments [7].
  • Some changes might be irreversible, or the deacclimatization phase might lead to complications.

Acclimatization Strategies

Effective acclimatization strategies can be adopted to ease the transition to new environments. These strategies range from physiological responses that occur naturally, to intentional changes in behavior, diet, and other activities.

Gradual Exposure

Gradual exposure is an effective method of acclimatization. For instance, climbers ascending a high-altitude peak should spend a few days at intermediate altitudes to allow their bodies to adjust [8]. This method can also apply to temperature changes, such as slowly increasing the intensity of workouts in a hot climate to build heat tolerance [9].

Hydration and Nutrition

Staying well-hydrated and maintaining a balanced diet can help support the body’s acclimatization process. For example, when adjusting to high altitudes, it’s important to consume adequate carbohydrates for energy and to drink plenty of fluids to stay hydrated [10].

Rest and Recovery

Allowing the body ample rest and recovery time is a crucial part of any acclimatization strategy. Sufficient sleep and downtime can assist the body in making necessary adjustments and help prevent stress and fatigue [11].

Acclimatization vs. Acclimation

Though often used interchangeably, ‘acclimatization’ and ‘acclimation’ have different connotations. Acclimatization refers to an organism’s adaptations to natural environmental changes. Conversely, acclimation pertains to the adjustments an organism makes in response to artificial or controlled environmental changes in a laboratory setting [12].

Future Perspectives

As the world confronts the impacts of climate change, understanding acclimatization is more important than ever. Organisms, including humans, will have to adapt to changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic factors. Studying acclimatization processes can help predict how species will cope with such changes and inform conservation and public health strategies [13].


Acclimatization is a fundamental biological process enabling survival in diverse environments. Understanding and harnessing this mechanism can improve human performance in various domains and enhance our ability to thrive in the face of environmental changes.


[1] B. Nielsen, J. R. Hales, S. Strange, N. J. Christensen, J. Warberg, and B. Saltin, “Human circulatory and thermoregulatory adaptations with heat acclimation and exercise in a hot, dry environment,” J. Physiol., vol. 460, pp. 467-485, 1993.

[2] R. M. Berne, M. N. Levy, B. M. Koeppen, and B. A. Stanton, Physiology. Mosby Elsevier, 2010.

[3] B. M. Koeppen, “The kidney and altitude,” High Alt. Med. Biol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 147-154, 2003.

[4] P. H. Hackett and R. C. Roach, “High-altitude illness,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 107-114, 2001.

[5] N. A. Taylor, “Human heat adaptation,” Compr. Physiol., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 325-365, 2014.

[6] M. Thomashow, “Plant cold acclimation: Freezing tolerance genes and regulatory mechanisms,” Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 571-599, 1999.

[7] R. M. Klatz and R. Goldman, “The acclimatization process,” Anti-Aging Therapeutics Volume XII, A4M, 2011.

[8] R. B. Schoene, “Illnesses at high altitude,” Chest, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 402–416, 2008.

[9] J. D. Cotter, N. A. Taylor, “The distribution of cutaneous sudomotor and alliesthesial thermosensitivity in mildly heat-stressed humans: an open-loop approach,” J. Physiol., vol. 565, pp. 335–345, 2005.

[10] P. Bartsch, M. Maggiorini, O. Ritter, R. Noti, H. Vock, and E. Oelz, “Prevention of high-altitude pulmonary edema by nifedipine,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 325, no. 18, pp. 1284–1289, 1991.

[11] R. R. Gonzalez, M. N. Sawka, and L. R. Pandolf, “Biophysical and physiological integration of proper rest intervals during work in hot environments,” Ergonomics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 919-931, 1985.

[12] L. H. Huey, and R. D. Stevenson, “Integrating thermal physiology and ecology of ectotherms: a discussion of approaches,” Am. Zool., vol. 19, pp. 357–366, 1979.

[13] J. J. Wiens, “Climate-related local extinctions are already widespread among plant and animal species,” PLoS Biol., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. e2001104, 2016.

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